Overzealous TPM protection
I'd set up BitLocker for someone using the Trusted Platform Module (TPM) in their laptop with a PIN1 to decrypt the drive. Unfortunately, they found that, after some time, the system tended to lock the PIN out, unless they used a recovery key to bypass the TPM and PIN access altogether.
As far as I can tell, this is some feature of the TPM in this particular laptop where too many incorrectly entered passwords results in the TPM locking out for some lengthy and possibly indefinite amount of time. Perhaps even permanently. I don't think this is the case where incorrect passwords are continually entered in a short time period, but where incorrect attempts over a longer period are cumulatively logged.
In this case, this state doesn't seem to get reset even if you subsequently re-enter the correct password, or unlock with another method. (It seems reasonable that the TPM's unaware of whether BitLocker's been unlocked or not by other means.)
Fixing the TPM
You can rectify this by resetting the TPM lockout but this is only a temporary fix. Again, after some number of password failures the lockout may happen again. My conclusion in this case is that, although disabling the TPM makes the system slightly less secure, the greatest threat here is not an unauthorised user accessing the data, but an authorised user being unable to access the data. Switching to just a password unlock then seems more sensible. I wouldn't recommend this downgrade in security otherwise.
At first look, you might think that this is a chore to switch. There's no obvious way of doing this in the BitLocker options for the drive, or under Control Panel, and your instinct might be to decrypt the drive and encrypt again. That can be time consuming, especially with large drives.
Using manage-bde to change key protection methods
Instead, you can run the command line utility: manage-bde.
Since TPM plus PIN, or recovery key (or some other method of securing your BitLocker encryption key) are key protection methods, Microsoft terms them "protectors". Also, here we are looking at removing a TPM and PIN protector, but you can use manage-bde to handle any BitLocker protector.
Specifically, you want to remove the existing TPM and PIN protector:
manage-bde -protectors -delete <Drive> -tpmandpin
You have to do this first, as it's not possible to have both TPM and PIN protector, and a password protector.
(A caution that
-delete without specifying
-type removes all
protectors and then will disable protection, so that you can still
access your drive in future. If you do that, you'll need to add new
protectors, as below, and you'll need to add new recovery protectors,
should you wish. You can do by specifying
-recoverypassword for a
numerical recovery code, or
-recoverykey for an external key in the
-add command below. And then you must enable the protectors again with
manage-bde -protectors -enable, including new recovery keys should you
wish to have them.)
Next, add a new protector, e.g. a password:
manage-bde -protectors -add <Drive> -password
C: is the most likely
<Drive> value here.)
You'll be prompted to enter, and then confirm, the new password. Now, you'll have a password protector, which won't be subject to a TPM lockout, as we wanted.
Finally, you can also check BitLocker status:
manage-bde -protectors -status
to confirm that the drive is encrypted, and which key protectors are active.
Well, password. You can configure Group Policy to allow passwords with TPM, instead of just numerical PINs. Microsoft's documentation always refers to this option as "TPM and PIN" regardless. This doesn't change the BitLocker prompt: it still asks for a PIN. ↩