A quick review of GitHub Actions
I've been using GitHub Actions a lot recently. It's a continuous integration and continuous delivery/deployment (CI/CD) tool that's, unsurprisingly, part of GitHub.
As the vagueness of the "D" in "CD" might indicate, different people have different interpretations of how you actually define these terms. For this discussion, let's just take it that these tools encourage developers to automate many software development processes that don't involve writing code. There's an aim of frequently getting changes into the main development branch, with minimal manual labour and aiming for a good level of quality control, trying to avoid broken code getting deployed.
So, I've been using GitHub Actions a lot, both for personal projects and at work. And I've enjoyed using it. It's reasonably easy to use, and there's a quick feedback loop from you pushing a workflow to seeing it run. This in turn makes it fun to work with; it puts you in a frame of mind where you ponder what development tasks you could automate.
Where GitHub Actions lacks is often for want of a little polish and refinement are needed. I'll mention three examples. First, the documentation occasionally lacks simple concrete examples for some of the features. The early parts of the documentation are actually example-focused. But then many of the features are simply all piled into a reference section at the end. Additionally, I don't know what exactly it is about the page design or the structuring of the documentation, but I did find it difficult to find precisely what I was looking for. That was the case even when I'd actually read some information before and knew it was hidden there, somewhere.
Often I've found more useful information elsewhere. Other helpful places I've found have included: GitHub's Architecture Decision Records in the GitHub Actions Runner repository, Stack Overflow, other people's GitHub Actions workflows, and documentation for third-party actions.
Second, at time of writing, there is no simple way to remove repetition within workflows and between workflows. For instance, you might want to run tests before you merge pull requests, and might want to do the same when you build and publish a new release. At the moment, this means duplicating part of one workflow in another, or creating a custom action. GitHub are planning to add "composite" actions soon which should help simplify this type of common reuse.
Finally, workflow steps do not have a non-failing "neutral" outcome. (Apparently, this did use to be a feature during the GitHub Actions beta.) You might design a workflow with a step that could determine whether subsequent steps should run or not. Without a neutral outcome, there is no easy way to indicate "no error, but we have stopped the workflow early". The only way to directly exit the workflow at that point is to fail. But this isn't semantically what is intended: this type of exit may be an expected valid state and not a workflow failure.
Alternatively, you can continue without failing by specifying
continue-on-error: true for a step. But now all subsequent steps will
run, which we don't want: maybe those steps will waste a sizable chunk
of our Actions minutes quota and/or maybe those steps will fail too. To
skip the rest of the steps when they're not needed, conditional checks
on "success" of steps can be threaded through the subsequent steps of
your workflow. But this complicates the workflow, a "neutral" outcome
would simplify this entirely by allowing us to exit, without failure, at
the point where we really do want the workflow to stop.
Competitive pricing and features
GitHub Actions does well on bundling free usage minutes, even for private projects. For something like, say Travis CI, you have to pay a hefty fixed price per month to get that option. Though it should be noted that Travis CI pricing includes unlimited minutes, whereas you have to pay if you exceed your GitHub Actions monthly quota.
However, at current pricing, you could get almost 10,000 monthly minutes on GitHub Actions using a Linux runner — $0.008 per minute, with 2000 included in a GitHub Free plan — for the cost of the cheapest Travis plan ($63). So, unless you're using a lot of minutes, when comparing on price alone, there's no contest.
The other big advantage of GitHub Actions is that it permits far more concurrent jobs than Travis CI: at the time of writing, a GitHub Free account has twenty concurrent (non-macOS) jobs. Travis CI offers only ten concurrent jobs even at the highest "Premium" plan, and just one on their lowest priced plan. This is important as, particularly if you're collaborating in a team, your request for a CI job may be blocked by other outstanding jobs, possibly delaying the completion of your requested job.
Both Travis CI and GitHub Actions offer free usage in some cases. GitHub Actions pricing refers to "free for public repositories". Travis CI's own site mentions "free for open source". I suspect by that this Travis CI really just mean "your code must be public". And not that anyone actually checks that your code is published under some kind of valid open source license.
Coupling automation to the remote repository host
Price and concurrency aside, what might be consequences of using the same service — here GitHub — for hosting the repository's code and that repository's automation?
From a quick search around, there doesn't appear any standard format for
specifying these types of automation workflows. That's not too
surprising. One reason might be that every provider implements their own
features and therefore wants to be able to flexibly specify the
configuration to incorporate those features. There aren't any
transpilers for different formats: I can't take an existing
.travis.yml and automatically convert it to a GitHub Actions
workflow.yml. (However, there is an R
project that aims to specify workflow
configurations for R packages agnostically, outputting configuration for
The consequence is that using GitHub Actions means that you now have a coupling of your code's organisation to GitHub, and adds work should you migrate to another Git repository host. To be fair, this is likely true already, even without using GitHub Actions. If you move to a different host, say GitLab, at the least, you'll also probably want to move the existing issues from GitHub to the new host. In mitigation of this, there are often tools or automatic imports for migrating these other non-code features, like issues.
But, as we've seen, any GitHub Actions workflows will probably need a manual rewrite to use a similar process elsewhere. This, then, is probably where using an external automation tool like Travis CI offers a benefit. If you migrate to a new remote repository host, to get your automation running, you just need to connect your new host to your existing automation system. No rewrite required.
On the other hand, it's reasonable to think that external tools are more awkward to configure and monitor as opposed to comparable tooling that is a key part of your existing repository host. With an external service, there will also be some requirement for developers to create an account there, and then allow the external application to access their GitHub account. With GitHub Actions, it's just another tab on your GitHub repository. (Travis CI certainly didn't help themselves here by previously having two separate domains, to independently handle free and paid services.)
And an external tool is an additional point of failure. It's possible GitHub is up and running, while Travis CI is unavailable, or vice versa. Either service failing can block active development.
So what's best?
Like many choices, there's no definitive answer. If the CI services have roughly equivalent features, then it comes down to what other aspects you prioritise. Is tight integration of your software development processes a positive — making for potentially easier configuration — or a hindrance to migration? Is pricing the most critical aspect?
For funded development teams, the pricing issue is perhaps less important since it will likely still be a small part of an organisation's budget. Where GitHub Actions is particularly well placed is in the giving of individual developers an allocation of free automation job time for their private projects. Together with that allocation being easily used as part of the service developers are already likely using, it is challenging for external automation services to compete.
And that's where my personal view is. I'm still sticking with GitHub Actions, notwithstanding the slight risk of getting too tied into GitHub. GitHub is incredibly popular right now, it's where open source projects are developed, and that network effect is an important one.